Chapter-8 Provisions Relating to Disbursement and Recovery of Credits
55. Provisions Relating to Disbursement of Credits: (1) A bank or financial institution shall disburse credits only after disclosing the purpose subject to the directives issued by the Rastra Bank and the credit policy as determined by the Board of Directors.
(2) While disbursing credits, a bank or financial institution shall obtain any movable or immovable property acceptable to it as a collateral security or an appropriate guarantee in manners as to safeguard the interests of its own and of its depositors.
(3) A bank or financial institution shall write to the concerned office to withhold any property which it has taken as collateral security against a credit pursuant to this Section in the name of the bank or financial institution so that such property may not be registered in the name of, or transferred to, any person in any manner whatsoever.
(4) In cases where a request has been made for registration, transfer or to withhold pursuant to Sub-Section (3), the concerned office shall withhold the registration or transfer thereof accordingly.
(5) In cases where the Rastra Bank gives direction to disburse credits for such class and in such area as prioritized for the economic upliftment of the persons belonging to a low-income group and indigent class and of the inhabitants residing in any particular geographical region, banks or financial institutions shall disburse credits according to the direction.
(6) The terms and conditions, repayment schedule, and interests of the credits borrowed by a borrower shall be according to the deeds or contract executed between the bank or financial institution and the borrower.
(7) If the borrower is a guarantor, or firm, company or an institution, the directors, the shareholders having subscribed the shares in numbers more than the percent prescribed by the Rasta Bank or partners or owners in any manner thereof; members of the families of all of the above persons and if any of them is a beneficiary of any institution get all the details thereof and also get the proof of identity while taking actions according to the prevailing laws.
(8) While disbursing any credit by a bank or financial institution to anyone, the regular installment of the credit, interests thereon, damage thereon and the repayment schedule shall be clearly specified in a deed or contract and information thereof shall be given to the borrower and guarantor in case where there exists a guarantor.
(9) A borrower may make a request for details of the payable or paid amount of principal, interests, damage, and other fees and the deed or contract executed in the
course of availing the credit and banks or financial institutions shall make such details available accordingly.
56. Monitoring as to Utilization of Credit Amount: A bank or financial institution shall carry out regular monitoring by preparing a monitoring schedule as to whether or not the borrower has utilized the credit for the purpose for which it has been disbursed.
57. Provisions on Recovery of Credit: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in a deed of a loan or in the prevailing Nepal law, a bank or financial institutions may recover its principal and interests thereon, having selling through auction the assets kept as mortgage by the borrower in the name of the bank or financial institution, if the borrower fails to abide by the terms and conditions of the credit as mentioned in the deed or contract or fails to repay the credit and interest thereon to the bank or financial institution within the loan repayment schedule stipulated in the deed or fails to pay the damage or if the bank or financial institution finds upon monitoring pursuant to Section 56, that the borrower has misused the credit by using it for the purpose other than the purpose for which it was disbursed.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing laws, in cases where a borrower relinquishes the title in any manner whatsoever over the assets mortgaged or the assets mortgaged as collateral security to the bank or financial institution or if the value of the collateral security, a bank or financial institution may ask such a borrower to keep more assets as collateral security decreases within the time limit specified by it and the borrower shall keep place additional collateral security within the time-limit prescribed by the bank or financial institution.
(3) In cases where a borrower fails to keep more assets as collateral within the time limit pursuant to Sub-Section (2) or the principal and interests thereon could not be recovered from the collateral security so mortgaged, the bank or financial institution may recover its principal and interests from the other movable or immovable property of the borrower according to the prevailing laws.
(4) In cases where any balance has remained after deducting the amount spent in connection with an auction or otherwise during the recovery of the principal, interest thereon or amount of damage, such balance shall be refunded to the concerned borrower
upon deduction of the principal, interest and the amount of damage payable to the bank or financial institution.
(5) Banks or financial institutions shall write to the concerned office to register or transfer of the ownership of the assets so auctioned as per this Section in the name of the person accepting the auction in accordance with the prevailing laws.
(6) In cases where a bank or financial institution writes for registration or transfer the ownership of the assets pursuant to Sub-Section (5), notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing laws, the concerned office shall register or transfer the ownership of the assets as requested in the name of the person who accept such an action.
(7) In cases where no one accepts the movable or immovable assets in the course of carrying out auction by a bank or financial institution pursuant to this Section, a bank or financial institution may take the ownership of such assets as prescribed in its own name.
(8) A bank or financial institution that has taken the ownership of the asset in question in its own name pursuant to Sub-Section (7) shall request to the concerned office shall, In cases where such a request has been received notwithstanding anything contained in the prevailing laws, the concerned office shall register or transfer the ownership of the assets in the name of the concerned bank or financial institution.
(9) If the previous owner does not allow or obstruct the exercise of the possessory right over the property, accepted by any person or a bank or institution through auction, the concerned office of the Government of Nepal shall cause to be erased the possessory right over the property in question.
(10) No one shall not be entitled to hinder the recovery process of the credit written off by a licensed institution in accordance with the prevailing Credit Write-off Byelaws.
(11) In cases where a borrower does not repay the credit from a bank or financial institution and the interests accrued thereto and damage within the time limit stipulated in the deed of the credit or the contract, the bank or financial institution shall write to the Credit Information Center Limited to blacklist the borrower according to the prevailing laws.
(12) In cases where a credit could not be recovered even after taking actions against the borrower under this Section, the bank or financial institution may, for the purpose of recovering such credit amount, take actions for the recovery of the credit according to the prevailing laws including freezing of any other assets of the borrower located in a foreign country if it is possible.
(13) In cases where a credit could not be recovered even after taking all actions under this Section, the concerned bank or financial institution may request the Rastra Bank for making the necessary arrangements to withhold or confiscate the passport of the concerned borrower and to deprive him of any particular services to be made available by the State. Upon receipt of such request, the Rastra Bank shall forward the request to the Government of Nepal for necessary actions along with its opinion.
(14) Nothing herein is deemed to prevent taking legal actions for any offence as per the prevailing laws on the ground that a bank or financial institution had taken action against a person in connection with the recovery of its credit.