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1. Background

Drug abuse and its illicit trafficking is a matter of multilateral concern. This is not only a problem of any specific place, country or region but appears to be a common problem of world human community. Almost all the countries of the world suffering from his problem. The problem of drug abuse in Nepal has become more complex owing; inter alia, to the arrival of the so-called hippie culture since the beginning of the 1990s. The number of drug users in Nepal was estimated to be more than fifty thousand as early as Ten years ago. Due to unplanned urbanization, increase
in the effects of organized crime network and expansion of so-called urbanization, it can be estimated that, this number has increased executively on recent days. This problem appears to be prevailing increasingly in almost
all urban areas including Kathmandu Valley, Pokhara and Dharan and market areas of Nepal, India border. Particularly, the trend of drug abuse and its addictions is increasing among the youth belonging to the vulnerable groups. On the other hand, the Drug users who confined themselves to the use of cannabis, cocaine and heroine, in the past, have now started using drugs by way of syringe since the beginning of 1990s. As a result of a
change taking place in the mode of multi-drug use and addiction, the drug users have been increasingly infected from dangerous diseases such as malnutrition, anemia, hepatitis, venereal disease and HIV/ AIDs. On the
whole, since the proportion of HIV infections appears higher among the injecting drug users, the likelihood of HIV infection by the drug users groups to their own families and other persons has increased.
The problem of drug addictions is increasing even among the women in urban areas. Those women who have got trapped in addiction have to face family and social boycotting, so they do not disclose it to anyone. Most of the female drug users are found to be engaged in flesh trade and drugs
dealing as a means of their income to continue their addiction. So, various studies make it clear that HIV infection is significantly increasing among
the female drug user sex workers. Since they rarely avail themselves to treatment and rehabilitation services it appears difficult to obtain adequate information and data about them. Until 1960s the misuse of and trafficking in drugs was confined to some cough medicines containing opium and psychotropic medicines but from beginning of 1990s the misuse of narcotics and psychotropic medicine has been increasing among the youths. The drug abuse appears to be increasing more and more since drugs are easily available, cheaper and is effective for a long time. Despite the fact that the Drugs Control and law enforcement agencies are active in preventing and controlling the illicit drug trafficking, cannabis farming and its sell, this problem has not been done away with. On the
contrary, it appears to have become more complex day-by-day. The activities of organized mafia involved in the illicit trafficking of drugs appear to have increased more in border areas. Heroine that is consumed at the local level or transported to other countries in illicit manner via Nepal appears to enter both through land and air routes. Also, due to the geographical location of Nepal which remains near the Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent, a major centre of production and trafficking in opium, the international drug mafia has been using the territory of Nepal as a transit point for illicit transaction and there is a strong possibility that it can be used more frequently in the future.